The purpose of designing a fire alarm system is to make us alert to an emergency situation. When we will get an alert we would be able to take an action for the protection of ourselves, other people, and the surroundings.Fire alarm systems are found everywhere, like in homes, offices, factories, hospitals, and other public buildings.
We Fire Safety Trading PVT Ltd, is a famous company for our quality products that we provide to our customers. We provide all types of fire alarms systems along with their installation and fire alarm maintenance . We have a trained staff that provide the best services.
A fire alarm system detects the smoke and fire in the initial stages, which is extremely beneficial because controlling a fire on a smaller scale is easier. By controlling fire on a small scale we can eradicate the losses.On one hand, the fire alarm system produces sounds that make the people alert to escape through the place where the fire incident has occurred, and on the other hand, a remote signal system can also be incorporated in the fire alarm systems. This remote signal system can alert a fire brigade through a central station.
The main part of the fire alarm system, that controls the whole system, is the fire alarm control panel. It is the part with which all the detector signals are wired. The indications status is also provided to the people by the fire alarm control panel.
There is another amazing use of fire alarm control panel, that we can install the set of instructions about what to do in an emergency situation which can really help to escape the people. It is really helpful because some people become so panicked that they get unable to take any action.
The detection devices are located at the center of the fire alarm system. The detection devices vary from simple manually operated break glass units to complex intelligent smoke detectors.We can divide the detection devices into different categories like smoke detectors, heat detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, Multi-sensor detectors, and manual call points.
- Smoke detectors: A smoke detector works in two ways, it can either make an alarm when the temperature exceeds a set limit, or it can make an alarm according to the rate of change of temperature.
There are different types of smoke detectors:
- Ionization: There are two chambers in ionization smoke detectors. The first chamber is used as a reference for compensating for the changes in temperature, humidity, and pressure. There is a radioactive source, normally an alpha particle in the second chamber. The current flows between the two electrodes in the chamber. The alpha particle ionizes the air passing through the chamber. The flow of current decreases when the smoke enters the chamber, and thus the drop of current flow starts an alarm.
- Light scattering smoke detectors: The smoke detectors work on the principle of the tyndall effect. There is a dark chamber that separates the photocell and the light source so that the light source cannot fall on the photocell. When the smoke enters the chamber the light from the light source scatters and falls on the photocell. Then the photocell output generates an alarm.
- Light obscuring smoke detectors: In the light obscuring smoke detectors there is a light beam between the photocell and the light source which is disturbed when the smoke enters. Then the amount of light is measured by the photocell and the variations in the photocell trigger the alarm. Light obscuring smoke detectors are very useful for covering large areas.
- Carbon mono oxide smoke detectors: CO smoke detectors are electronic detectors that indicate the outbreak of a fire. They sense the level of carbon monoxide in the air. Carbon mono oxide is a harmful gas that is produced when something burns.Carbon mono oxide smoke detectors used at homes are more responsive. The electrochemical cell inside the CO smoke does not detect the other products of combustion and only detects carbon monoxide.
- Multi-sensor detectors: These detectors get a combined input from optical and heat sensors, which is then processed by the special systems inside the detectors. Then the control panel computes those values. Multi-sensor detectors are designed to sense a wide variety of fires.
- Manual call point or break glass call point: It needs to be operated manually by human beings.
Fire alarm systems can be divided into four categories. Those are mentioned below:
Conventional fire alarm system:
Several call points and detectives are interconnected with the help of physical cables in the conventional fire alarm system. All the parts are controlled by the main unit and receive all the signals, for detecting the reason for alarm easily, the call points and detectors are divided into zones. This feature is really helpful for both the fire brigade and the management of the building. On the fire alarm control panel, each zone is indicated with light or text and in some cases, both light and text are used to indicate each zone. Dividing the building into more zones will help to identify the reason and location of the alarm accurately and quickly.
Minimum two sounder circuits are wired to the control panel. The sounder system may contain bells, electronic sounders, or any other audible device that can produce sound.
A device that produces sound when the alarm is triggered is called an electronic sounder.
Addressable fire alarm system:
An addressable fire system works the same as a conventional fire alarm system but there is a difference that each detector of an addressable fire alarm system is provided with a specific Address. Specific Address is given to each detector by the means of dip-switch. In this way, the control panel matches the installed address and easily identifies that which call point or detector has triggered the alarm.
The detection circuit is wired as a loop and with each loop up to 99 devices can be connected. Commonly, the loop isolation module is used to fit the loops. In this way, the loop is divided into sections so that in the case of a short circuit only a limited area could be damaged. In case of a short circuit or signal fault, the remaining parts will keep their working efficiently without any disturbance.
In conventional fire alarm systems and addressable fire alarm systems, the signals are not considered ‘intelligent’, because they can give only output signals.
Intelligent fire alarm system:
This is an advanced kind of fire alarm system. In an intelligent fire alarm system, every detector contains its own computer, which keeps a check on the surrounding environment and tells the exact reason for the alarm to the control panel. The alarm can be triggered either because of a fire, a fault or the detector head may need to be cleaned.
The intelligent fire alarm systems have a complex system but also have more facilities and efficiency than the conventional fire alarm system and addressable fire alarm system.
The main benefit of an intelligent fire alarm system is that it can prevent unnecessary alarms. There are different versions of intelligent fire alarm systems i.e 2,4 and 8 loop versions, due to this feature you can monitor larger areas with only one panel.
Wireless fire alarm system:
This type of fire alarm system can be used as an alternative to conventional wired alarm systems. They use secure radio communications for connecting the sensors and devices with the control panel. A wireless fire alarm system is quite simple but has many unique benefits. The biggest thing that makes it different from other fire alarm systems is that it does not need any wire or cable.
That was all about the types of fire alarm systems.
Importance of fire alarm systems:
Fire alarm systems are installed in various buildings we come across on daily basis, these systems are installed in the buildings for alerting the people of an emergency situation or any fire incident. When they get alert of an emergency situation in the initial phase, they can not only easily save themselves but also take control over the situation
Fire Alarm Maintenance
Now we know how important fire alarm maintenance . The maintenance of the fire alarm system is also very important. We should check the maintenance annually. The fire alarm maintenance includes:
The maintenance activities for fire alarm maintenance can be summed up in five steps.
- Test and calibrate alarm sensors, such as flame and smoke detectors, per manufacturer specifications. This requires knowing about the different sensors—and their testing requirements, failure modes, and re-installation requirements.
- Simulate inputs and test the annunciators. This requires specific knowledge of the system under test.
- Set sensitivity. This requires an understanding of the particular system, the specific application, and fire detection theory.
- Coordinate with the fire department to test the input to their system.
- Check the battery for corrosion and expiration date, then take appropriate action, if necessary.
BS 5839 recommends that this should be performed on a weekly basis and documented in the fire logbook. It’s a routine that most businesses employ. If you are planning to do this on a less regular basis, however, you need to provide a reason to investigate fire safety officers that may pay a visit to your premises. If a fault is spotted with the alarms during these tests, you should call the company who services your system immediately.
The fire alarm maintenance includes the replacement of batteries after every four years and the replacement of non defected detectors after every 8 years and defected detectors should be replaced as per requirement.
An expert should be called for the inspection of the fire alarm systems.
The fire alarm systems are used to warn people about a fire incident or any other emergency situation. This warning can easily save the lives of people, the buildings, and the important assets and documents kept in those buildings.
We have seen that the fire alarm systems have different parts like detectors. There are various types of detectors used in fire alarm systems like heat detectors, smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors multi-sensor detectors, and manual call points.Then the fire alarm systems also have three different types including conventional fire alarm systems, addressable fire alarm systems, intelligent fire alarm systems, and wireless fire alarm systems.
Fire safety PVT ltd:
We the fire safety PVT ltd are the best suppliers of fire alarm systems. We are known for reasonable fire alarm system prices in Pakistan. If you are looking for the best fire alarm system suppliers near me you can contact us at the earliest. We will never let you be unhappy with our fire alarm systems, fire alarm system installation, and fire alarm system maintenance. contact us